advertising agency. An independent business organization that creates, prepares, and places advertisements in various media for its clients.
agency commission. A fee paid by a media company to an advertising agency based on a percentage of the cost of the advertising contract.
airport displays. A variety of types of advertising displays available at airports, ranging from Dioramas (backlit wall posters) to freestanding islands or specially built exhibits.
allotment. The number of illuminated and non-illuminated panels in a showing. The number of panels in a GRP/Showing is referred to as the market allotment, which varies from market to market.
amortization. In accounting, the estimated decline each year in the value of an intangible asset after original purchase. For billboards, amortization describes a grace period between the time a sign owner is notified that a sign must be removed, and the time when the sign is actually removed. Also a term used in contracting for Bulletins where the cost of features such as added embellishments are paid over the period of contract rather than at the beginning.
angled. The position of a billboard face in reference to the roadway.
animation. Movement or motion on a billboard face that may include moving parts. Not permitted in some states.
annual ADT. Annual average daily traffic, based on statistics from counts of motor vehicles at particular sites.
approach. Distance from which an outdoor advertising structure first becomes clearly visible, measured in feet or seconds.
apron. Area beneath the bottom molding of the front of a billboard. Synonymous with "base."
arteries or arterials. The major streets of a city or town.
audited circulation. Independently verified traffic circulation data for Out-of-Home media according to established national procedures approved by the buyer and seller community. Normally considered to be verified by the Traffic Audit Bureau for Media Measurement (TAB) (similar to Audit Bureau of Circulations).
availability. Number of panels available for sale on any given posting date.
average date of completion. Averaging date when several postings of painted Bulletins in a single contract are completed. Some billboard postings are completed and exposed to traffic earlier or later than others.
back-to-back. Billboard faces erected on one structure facing in opposite directions.
backlighted (backlit). Advertising structures that house illumination in a box, casting light out through translucent advertising printed on plastic or heavy-duty paper. Used especially at night.
base. Trim or elongated panel beneath the bottom molding, usually found on painted Bulletins. Synonymous with "apron."
billboard. Large panel or flat surface that is intended for viewing an advertisement or notice from extended distances, generally more than 50 feet. Usually means standardized wooden or steel structures that carry either poster paper or painted messages as advertisements to motor vehicle traffic. The four most common types of billboards are referred to as Spectaculars, Bulletins, Posters, and Junior Posters.
billroom. Place where advertising paper is stored and prepared for the bill poster's use.
blanket contract. Contract for a specified amount of money that pays for space purchased as authorizations are received.
blanking paper. White paper surrounding the advertising copy to form a border between the ad and the panel molding. On 30-sheet Posters, blanking is 6.5 inches to 11.5 inches at the sides, and 5 inches at the top and bottom.
bleed posting. Copy that extends to the edge of a billboard on all sides.
bleed-through. A production difficulty where the previous design can be seen through the current message. Can occur because of the kind of paper used, a chemical reaction of certain pigments, or because of excessive wetting from heavy rain.
blister. Paint or paper separating from the structure by forming air pockets or a bubble.
blocked panel. Obstructed view of a billboard face, usually on a permanent basis.
block. An object that obstructs the view of a billboard face.
boards. Common term for billboards.
booked. Billboards already sold to an advertiser for a given posting date. Also, acceptance of a contract for advertising space by the plant operator.
bottom molding. Trim or border on the bottom edge of a billboard.
bulletins. Large billboards usually 14 feet x 48 feet, 10 feet, 6 inches x 36 feet, or 20 feet � 60 feet. When the method of reproduction is paint directly on the sign face, the bulletin is called a "paint" or "painted bulletin."
bundle of rights theory. Ownership concept of property viewed as to a bundle of separate rights of the property owner. Might include the right to occupy, use, lease, encumber, or sell real estate.
buy. Leasing of sign space. A common "buy" is the leasing by an advertiser of a group of sign faces for a period of months.
buyer. Advertiser that leases the sign faces.
Buyer's Guide to Outdoor Advertising. Official advertising rate and panel allotment source for 30-Sheet Posters and Bulletins. Published by CMR (Competitive Media Reports) under the auspices of the OAAA (Outdoor Advertising Association of America). Issued twice a year.
"C" print. Glossy four-color print or high quality color copy, usually made from a transparency. Often used as guide artwork for Bulletin painters to follow for color and composition of the illustration.
C-Store display. Small advertising display, often 67 inches by 46 inches or smaller, usually posted at the entrance to a convenience store.
cans. Incandescent lighting fixtures attached to an outdoor advertising structure.
cantilever construction. Type of sign construction used to prevent various types of trespassing, where the sign face is set off from the supporting beams.
car cards. Advertising displays of various sizes posted in buses, subways and commuter trains.
channel letters. Sheet metal letters with recessed surfaces designed to accommodate incandescent bulbs or luminous tubing.
charting a showing. Process of selecting proposed or actual display locations on a map of the streets and highways of a market.
checking. Tour of each billboard in a showing to verify that the advertising displays meet contract specifications. (See "ride the boards"). Also, inspection of structures and analysis of maintenance.
city panels. Framed Posters on the street side of phone booth kiosks, providing visibility to vehicles and pedestrians.
circulation. Number of potential viewers of a billboard face. Billboard circulation is based on traffic volume, including automotive, pedestrian, and mass transportation.
coat out. Process of covering a painted advertising message with white or gray paint before new copy is displayed.
commercial or "on-premise" sign. Any sign that advertises a product, service, entertainment, or commodity sold or offered at the same site. Usually referred to as a business sign. Such signs are not considered billboards, or out-of-home media.
competitive plants. Two or more billboard plants operating in the same market.
computer printing/painting. Method of applying design to flexible vinyl via computer controlled printer that increases faithful reproduction.
conforming sign. Billboard legally erected in accordance with the federal, state and local laws in effect at the present time.
cooperative advertising. Sharing of advertising costs between a manufacturer and distributor or dealer/retailer of a product or service.
copy. Pictorial design, background, word copy, and message to be displayed.
cost approach. An appraisal approach in which replacement cost or reproduction cost is the estimate of value.
cost per thousand (CPM). Cost of reaching one thousand potential viewers of a billboard panel. The formula for calculation is the monthly cost of the face divided by the circulation measured in thousands of viewers.
cost per rating point (CPP). Cost of exposing a message to achieve one rating point, or 1% of the market population.
counting station. Defined point on a street where vehicles and/or pedestrians are recorded to determine circulation. Out-of-home media, federal, state and local governments use counting stations.
coverage. Area or boundaries to be exposed to an advertising campaign; one or more counties; a particular group or consumer segment; that percentage of a market population that has a reasonable opportunity to see the advertising; reach of particular billboards included in an advertising campaign.
cross-read. Billboard visible across traffic lanes on the opposite side of the roadway.
customized rotation. Advertisements moved to new sign locations in a market on specific dates to meet a client's advertising needs.
custom-made posters. Hand-painted, lithographed, or screen-printed posters normally made in small quantities. Primarily used by local business in smaller markets.
cutouts. Special productions or additions to the face of a sign that are raised or extend beyond the border of the standardized area. Intended to command greater attention to the message. Cutouts can include letters or objects used to achieve a three dimensional appearance. (Also called extensions or embellishments).
date strips. Strips of paper pasted over an existing billboard advertisement to announce the date of the advertised event. (Also see overlay, snipe).
daily effective circulation (DEC). Average number of people age 18 and older that are exposed each day to a sign or group of signs. (See circulation).
day-glo. Trade name for certain inks or lacquers that become fluorescent when activated by ultraviolet rays of sunlight or special illumination.
demographic profiles. Audience categories based on various characteristics such as age, sex, income, and education.
design. Artwork and text that constitute an advertisement.
diorama. Backlit display located in airports, bus terminals and sports stadiums/arenas.
designated market area (DMA). Specifically defined geographical area used by A. C. Nielsen market researchers to identify TV stations that best reach the population of an area and attract the most viewers. A DMA consists of all ZIP Codes whose largest viewing share is given to a station of that same market area. Non-overlapping DMAs cover the entire continental United States, Hawaii and parts of Alaska.
direct sales comparison approach. (See sales comparison
directional signs. Billboards showing locations and directions to nearby restaurants, lodging, local attractions, real estate developments, etc.
display. In the billboard industry, an advertising message on the face of a sign. Also may refer to the entire structure.
display period. Duration of time when outdoor advertising copy is on the face of a sign for viewing.
distribution. Physical location of the individual advertising structures within a market relative to exposure potential. Also refers to a map with specific sign locations marked to show a pattern of market coverage.
district showing. Advertisement on a group of signs in one segment of a market, not displayed throughout the market.
DMA. Designated Market Area: a rigidly defined geographical area used by A.C. Nielsen to identify TV stations that best reach an area and attract the most viewers.
double deck. Two or more faces, one set above the other.
dye transfer. Opaque, high-fidelity color print made from artwork. Permits wide range of color correction during laboratory processing.
efficiency. Degree of value delivered for an advertiser relative to the space cost. Usually expressed as either CPM (cost per thousand) or CPP (cost per gross rating point).
effective circulation. (See daily effective
effective gross income (EGI). Actual collected revenue.
Effective Gross Income Multiplier (EGIM). Ratio of the sales price of an asset to its effective gross income. Frequently applied to billboards.
EGIM. (see above).
eight-sheet panel. A small Poster quoted as 6 feet by 12 feet (actually 5 feet by 11 feet), usually placed for exposure to pedestrians as well as vehicles. Found predominately in urban areas for neighborhood coverage. (See Junior Poster).
embellishment. (See cutouts).
end panel. Advertising structure closest to the approaching lane of traffic when more than one structure is built in the same facing.
exposure. Reasonable opportunity for advertising to be seen and read.
expressway. Limited access roadways with a speed limit of 55 mph or more. Parking is prohibited.
extended service. Method of adjusting a loss of service to an advertiser by exposing the message beyond the period specified in the contract.
extensions. Method of extending the copy area outside of the billboard frame normally by use of cutouts.
extra service. Method of adjusting for loss of service to an advertiser by posting additional panels beyond the number specified in the contract. In the case of Bulletins, a mutually agreed upon substitute location may be offered.
face. Surface of a sign that carries the advertising message. One billboard structure may have more than one face.
facing. Direction that a panel is exposed to display advertising copy.
fair market value. The most likely price in terms of cash, at which property would change hands between a willing buyer and willing seller when neither is compelled to act, both are reasonable well informed, and each is acting in his or her own perceived best interest. Specific legal definitions should be checked for each jurisdiction.
fee simple estate. Absolute ownership of real estate unencumbered by any other interest or estate, subject only to the limitations of the four powers of government.
federal-aid primary. Highway designated by the state and approved by the U.S. Secretary of Transportation as of June 1, 1991.
fiber optic display. Innovative use of light-transmitting fibers to create changeable copy displays on a billboard.
flagged or flagging. Paper or vinyl that is torn, waving, or hanging from the face of a sign.
flank. Panel on the same horizontal level as another panel, erected on one structure and facing the same direction.
flexible face. Single-sheet of flexible vinyl with advertising message printed on one side.
flight. The length of time for an advertising campaign.
frequency. Approximate number of times an advertisement might be viewed by an individual in a given period of time. Usually measured over a 30-day period.
fully-wrapped bus. Specially commissioned transit display in which the entire vehicle, including windows, is covered with the advertising design. Passengers have visibility out of the windows due to special material.
geo-demographic mapping. Method of providing specific audience characteristics as they relate to out-of-home locations, both geographically and demographically. Enables plant operators to specify locations that most efficiently reach target audiences, such as by age, sex, income, brand preference, or purchase behavior profiles.
GIM. Gross Income Multiplier.
Global information system (GIS)/Global positioning system (GPS). Location systems that can identify exact latitude and longitude of billboards using hand-held instruments that communicate with orbiting satellites.
grand format printing. Large-scale printing process on flexible vinyl, paper, canvas, mesh and translucent materials for use on billboards. Also called Large Format.
gross impressions. Total number of opportunities for a target audience to view a sign.
Gross Income Multiplier (GIM). Ratio of the sales price of an asset to its gross income. Frequently applied to billboards when the EGIM is intended.
Gross Rent Multiplier (GRM). Ratio of the sales price of an asset to its gross rental income. Frequently applied to residential real estate.
Gross Rating Points (GRP). System to standardize the measurement of media exposure. For billboards, one gross rating point represents traffic circulation equal to 1% of the population. Sometimes used interchangeably with Showing.
hand count. Substitute used to count circulation (potential exposure) when no official source of traffic counts is available. TAB has developed factors for statistically reliable expansion of sample counts to full daily exposure estimates.
hand-painted. Rendering of advertisement copy directly onto a billboard face using paint and brushes.
head-on. Billboard site directly in front of approaching traffic so that the face appears to be in the middle of the roadway. Usually at the beginning or end of a curve in the road.
high-spot. Locations at strategic places that permit opportunities for very high levels of exposure. Formerly referred to as roof locations.
hightail displays. Posters affixed to the upper portion of the backs of buses, with copy area 15.5" high by 63" wide.
Highway Beautification Act. Federal billboard legislation sometimes called the HBA, or Lady Bird Johnson Act, passed in 1965. The HBA mandates state billboard controls on Interstate, Federal-Aid Primary highways and the National Highway System.
highway bulletin. Outdoor advertising sign (usually 12 feet high by 40 feet wide) located in a rural area with copy painted directly on the face.
highway wall. Advertisement painted directly on the side of a building along a main highway.
illegal sign. Billboard erected or maintained in violation of current laws.
illuminated panel. Sign face equipped with lights capable of shining directly on the copy. Often located on streets with heavy night traffic.
imprint. Name of the sign structure's owner, usually found on the top or bottom molding of the sign.
imprint-dealer. Strip imprinted with the name, address and/or phone number of the local dealer handling the product/service being advertised. Commonly placed across the bottom 20 inches of Posters.
income approach. Valuation approach based on the amount of income a property is producing or can produce over its remaining economic life.
inflatables. Air-filled, three-dimensional displays for use at point-of-sale or special events. Usually taking the shape of a product, trademarked character, etc. May be affixed to Bulletins.
inside panel. All panels erected in a group at one location that face the same direction are classified as inside panels, except for the one closest to the traffic, which is the end panel.
inspection. Driving tour of advertising displays for pre-buy selection of sites, verification that copy has been posted, etc.
intensive showing. Intensified advertising campaign that includes more billboard faces than a representative showing in order to increase market penetration.
junior poster. Small, standardized billboard used to display advertising to pedestrian traffic as well as street traffic. See Eight-Sheet.
king size bus posters. Posters affixed to the sides of public buses with a copy area of 27" high x 141" wide.
larger parcel. In condemnation, the portion of a property that has unity of ownership, contiguity, and unity of use, the three conditions that establish the larger parcel for the consideration of severance damages in most states. Sometimes contiguity is subordinated to unity of use. Used synonymously with parent holding.
leasehold estate. Right to use and occupy real estate for a stated term and under certain conditions. Conveyed by a lease.
leasehold improvements. Improvements or additions to leased property that have been made by the lessee.
lease interest. One of the real property interests that results from the separation of the bundle of rights by a lease, i.e., the leased fee estate or the leasehold estate.
legal nonconforming use. Use that was lawfully established and maintained, but no longer conforms to current zoning or permit regulations.
length of approach. Distance, from which a billboard is clearly visible, measured in feet or seconds.
line of travel. The center of a lane of traffic moving in one direction.
lithography. Method of printing used to produce large quantities of billboard copy. The original design is etched on metal plates that are inked and put under pressure to transfer the design to paper.
load factor. Average number of passengers in each vehicle.
location codes. Letters used to designate the location of an advertising display on a street. Standard abbreviations are E/S east side, W/S west side, N/S north side, S/S south side
location list. List of billboard sites where an advertiser's message will be displayed for an advertising campaign.
location map. Map of the market with colored dots indicating the location of the billboards for a specific GRP/Showing.
long side. Billboard on the left side of the street, also called cross reader.
mall display. Backlit advertising structure located at strategic points in shopping malls, usually two or three sided, including directory format.
mandatory copy. Copy required by law to appear on the advertising of certain products, such as liquor and tobacco products. Applies to all print media.
mapping. Refers not only to geographic locations but also to demographic and behavioral characteristics provided by plant operators about its market area.
market. Defined area where a billboard plant is located. Can also refer to coverage, or percentage of population potentially exposed to the advertising.
market approach. Appraisal approach based on the analysis of sales prices for similar property.
market value. The most probable price, as of a specified date, in cash, or in terms equivalent to cash, or in other precisely revealed terms, for which the specified property rights should sell after reasonable exposure in a competitive market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, with the buyer and seller each acting prudently, knowledgeably, and for self-interest, and assuming that neither is under undue duress. - The Appraisal of Real Estate, 10th ed., published in 1992 by the Appraisal Institute...The specific definition of market value should be determined for each jurisdiction.
media mix. Combination of media types used together to meet the objectives of a media plan. Out-of-home media companies report that this segment of the media tends to enhance the overall effectiveness of various advertising campaigns, particularly by cost-effectively increasing reach and frequency.
metropolitan highway bulletin (also called railroad bulletin). Very large billboard at a site along a major highway or rail line approaching a metropolitan area. Standard dimensions are 18 feet high by 72 feet wide.
minimum showing. Fewer panels than a standard showing, sometimes used to sustain a limited advertising campaign.
mobile billboard. A billboard mounted on a truck or trailer that can become part of traffic flow, or parked specific locations.
molding (also called molding trim). Metal, plastic or wood frame surrounding the face of a billboard structure.
monopole, or unipole. Billboard frame structure mounted atop a single steel pole or column.
MSA (metropolitan statistical area). A geographic area defined by the U.S. Census Bureau that comprises a significant population nucleus together with adjacent communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration with the nucleus.
multiple facing. Advertising location with two or more adjacent (within 25') or stacked panels facing the same direction.
multi-vision. (See three-message sign).
NAC rating (Obsolete). Rating of Net Advertising Circulation derived from multiplying the space position value (SPV) by the daily effective circulation (DEC). Replaced by the Outdoor Visibility Rating System (OVRS).
neighborhood showing. Small local advertising campaign focussed on one or more neighborhoods.
net reach. Estimated total number of persons within a target audience exposed to the advertising schedule, often expressed as a percentage.
non-conforming sign. Billboard that may have been legally erected and maintained but does not conform to current regulation.
non-illuminated panel. A billboard panel not equipped with lights. Also called a regular.
non-traditional out-of-home. Displays in out-of-home advertising that are not Bulletin or Poster Panel billboards. The most common non-traditional out-of-home media are bus wraps and bus sides, street furniture (bus shelters, telephone and street kiosks), commuter rails/subways, airport displays, mall advertising, wallscapes, mobile displays, ski advertising, truck advertising, and movie theater advertisements.
occupancy factor. Ratio of units occupied to total units available. Also, ratio of actual income to potential income if all units were occupied.
off-premise sign. Structure advertising a business, product, service or entertainment not on the property where the sign is located. A billboard is an off-premise sign.
official count. Traffic count taken from official government sources such as city, state or county departments of transportation.
official sign. Directional signs and other notices erected and maintained by public officials or agencies.
on-premise signs. Sign structure advertising a business, product, service or entertainment on the property where the sign is located. A billboard is not an on-premise sign.
one-sheet poster (transit). Small, vertical poster used on subway and train platforms.
one-sheet poster (non-transit). Small, vertical poster placed near the entrance of point-of-sale locales such as convenience stores, liquor stores and other retail outlets.
outdoor advertising. General term referring to many forms of advertising messages outside the home.
Outdoor Advertising Association of America, Inc. (OAAA). An organization that represents the standardized outdoor advertising industry in the United States, including many outdoor advertising companies, plant operators, suppliers, and affiliates. OAAA represents industry interests before Congress and regulatory agencies and also provides assistance to its members working with local and state governments.
outdoor advertising industry. Companies that own and maintain out-of-home advertising displays to rent space to advertisers.
outdoor placement specialists. Companies, networks or agencies that specialize in out-of-home media development, placement and evaluation. They are employed by advertisers and advertising agencies to negotiate, contract and check buys because of their expertise in these media forms.
Outdoor Visibility Rating System (OVRS). Method for sign owners and advertising agencies to rate the visibility of a billboard to passing traffic. No longer used extensively.
Out-of-home Media Source. Comprehensive source book of types of out-of-home media companies and their rates. Published by
SRDS, Inc., New York, N.Y.
out-of-home media. Industry term for outdoor advertising. Usually includes billboards, street furniture, and transit.
outside panel. Billboard panel located closest to the street when two or more panels are positioned side-by side.
overlay. Paper strip pasted over a section of an existing Poster, to show a price, a date, or other time-sensitive information. Used interchangeably with snipe.
override. Period of time a plant operator allows an advertisement to remain on display after the end of the advertising contract period.
package. Group of signs included in an advertising contract.
paint plant. All of the painted billboards, or "permanent paints", in a given area owned or operated by one sign company.
painted wall. Advertisement painted directly on the wall of a building.
paint-out. To obliterate previous copy in preparation for a change in design. Also called Coat-out or Blank-out.
panel. Usually refers to a billboard face, but can also refer to a single sign structure.
panels per facing (PPF). Number of panels on a structure that face the same direction.
parent holding. (See larger parcel).
permanent Bulletin. Advertisement or display that remains at one location for the entire term of the advertiser's contract.
permanent paint. (See permanent Bulletin above).
permit. License granted by a state or local government that authorizes a sign structure to be erected and maintained, usually at a specific site.
plant. Total billboards under a single ownership in a city or market.
plant capacity. Number of #100 showings that a plant can produce simultaneously.
plant defined market (PDM). Geographic area of outdoor media distribution as defined by a local plant operator and based on county coverage.
plant imprint. Sign company's logo on an advertising structure.
plant operator. Owner or manager of an outdoor advertising company in a particular market area.
plant rep (representative). Agent who represents more than one plant operator in different markets, working to place advertising campaigns in each plant market in return for fee or commission.
PMSA (primary metropolitan statistical area). Second level in the U.S. Government's three-tiered system of metro area classification. PMSAs are characterized as metropolitan areas having a total population of 1 million or more, anchored by a large urbanized county or cluster of counties with strong internal economic and social links. By definition, PMSAs are the components of Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas
(CMSAs), which represent the third tier and are made up of two or more contiguous
position. Physical placement of a billboard on a certain site. The angle of the sign in relation to the road, height above ground level, and directions of faces.
poster. Advertisement posted on an out-of-home media structure. Short for Poster Panel.
poster panel. Outdoor advertising structure with a face to display advertising copy. Usually one of two sizes: 30-sheet "bleed" posters have total dimensions quoted as 12 feet by 25 feet (actually 10.5 feet by 22.8 feet); 8-sheet posters have quoted dimensions of 6 feet by 12 feet (actually 5 feet by 11 feet).
poster showing. Group of Poster Panels displaying an advertiser's message for a specific period of time.
poster - 30-sheet. Advertising panel with copy area normally quoted as measuring 12 feet high by 25 feet wide.
poster - 8-sheet. Advertising panel with copy area normally quoted as measuring 6 feet high by 12 feet wide.
posting date. Date on which the plant operator is scheduled to start a showing. The first day an advertisement is to be displayed.
posting date leeway. Period of time within which a posting should be completed. Usually plus or minus five days.
posting period. Length of time copy is displayed on one panel, usually figured in 30-day increments.
post-ride. Driving tour to check each billboard location for advertising copy as prescribed.
post-turn. A changeable billboard face composed of 3-sided panels that are synchronized to rotate together, displaying three different messages when each rotation is stopped. Also called 3-message signs.
potential gross income (PGI). Amount of revenue that would be generated assuming full occupancy at market rental rates.
potential viewer family. One or more persons in a family who pass a typical Poster showing with the opportunity to view the advertisement.
porta-panel. Mobile panel that may be wheeled to a given location. Frequently used for merchandising purposes at retail or other locations during special events.
pounce patterns. Method most frequently used in the past for enlarging art and copy to fill Bulletin size. The design is projected onto large sheets of paper and traced in outline form by perforation with an electric needle. The perforated sheets, known as pounce patterns, are held against the painting surface and dusted with charcoal dust to reproduce the outline of the design on the surface to be painted.
preferred position. Billboard sites selected for their highly attractive location, often with high traffic circulation.
pre-pasting. Application of paste to the back surface of Poster sheets in the shop, rather than in the field.
pre-ride. Driving tour of panels to view the specific locations that are scheduled to be included in a showing.
premiere panel. Advertisement printed on a vinyl sheet stretched over a 30-sheet Poster.
premier square. Advertisement printed on a vinyl sheet stretched over stacked Posters or Junior Posters.
proof of performance. Certification that advertisements have been displayed according to the contract.
public service copy. Display copy for a civic or philanthropic purpose at reduced cost or free of charge in the interest of community support.
queen size bus poster. Posters affixed to the sides of public buses with copy area of 27" high by 85" wide.
rain lap. Poster sheets trimmed so that the upper sheets overlap the lower sheets, similar to the way shingles are laid on a roof. This reduces the possibility of flagging due to rain seepage between the Poster and the panel face.
ratchet strap. Wide tie lines attached at the edges of the flexible vinyl sheet carrying advertising copy. Used to stretch the vinyl taught over sign and secure the edges behind the face.
rate. Quoted or printed cost of billboard advertising, usually stated for GRP or Showings on a per month basis. Available from individual sellers or from centralized statistical sources.
rate book (also rate card). Pamphlet or book that lists the prices charged by a sign owner.
rated. Billboard that has been evaluated for visibility, competition, direction of traffic, type of area, and circulation.
rating point. One rating point equals 1% of the market's population.
reach. Approximate percentage of the target audience population that potentially will be exposed to the advertising message at least once during a showing. Usually measured over a 30-day period.
regular. A non-illuminated billboard.
renewals, or renewal paper. Extra Poster sheets sent by a printer or advertiser to a plant operator to replace those sheets that may be damaged during display period. Renewal paper is often 10% to 20% of the total order.
repaints. Repainting of permanent displays.
replacement cost. Current cost of a similar new property that has the nearest equivalent utility as the subject property.
reposting. Posting a panel a second time, possibly with the same copy.
reposting charge. Additional charge incurred for posting a change of design before expiration of a display period.
representative showing. Advertising display on multiple panels generally used to provide complete market coverage.
reproduction cost. Current cost of reproducing a new replica with the same or nearly identical materials and design.
rescale. Line drawing of the original painted display scaled to fit a differently proportioned space.
ride the boards (or, ride the showing). Driving tour to review the physical characteristics of faces in a showing. Used to assess each sign's attractiveness, the presence of obstacles to vision, normal visibility to drivers, and the length of time the sign can be observed easily.
right of way. Area along highway or arterial street that is under the control of a city, county or state. Billboards are located on private land adjacent to the highway right of way.
rotate, or rotary. Periodic movement of an advertiser's message from one Bulletin location to another at stated intervals to achieve greater reach in the market. Also refers to an individual billboard that is often included in rotation plans.
rotating plan. The scheduled locations where and times when an advertiser's message will appear.
royal facing. Embellishment where an enlarged display area is affixed to the face of a sign and extends beyond the molding to create a larger appearance.
sale. In the billboard industry, usually refers to renting one or more billboards by an advertiser.
sales clause. Lease provision allowing the lessor to terminate the lease if the land is sold.
sales comparison approach. Appraisal approach that compares the subject property to similar properties that have been sold recently, applying appropriate units of comparison, and applying the market prices to the subject after making appropriate adjustments. Also called direct sales comparison approach, and market approach.
sales or lease rider. Additional term or condition attached to a lease. An addendum.
salvage value. Estimated amount of money that is expected to be realized from the whole property, or a component of the whole property, that is retired from service for use elsewhere.
satellite systems. Within the billboard industry, method of electronic communications using satellite connections to turn billboard lighting on or off from a central location, or warn of power outages, bulb expiration, and other maintenance needs.
scenic byway. Road that has been designated through legislation or other official declaration as special for its scenic value. The road can be classified as a parkway, greenway, trail, heritage highway, drive, road, byways or
backway. Portions of scenic byways may pass through non-scenic commercial and industrial areas, or through comprehensively zoned urban cities. States and localities have the right to determine whether they want to place billboards in these non-scenic commercial and industrial portions of designated scenic byways.
scrap value. Estimated amount of money expected to be realized from property if sold for its material content rather than its productive use.
screen printing. Method of printing small to moderate quantities, which employs stencils rather than metal plates.
sections. Removable sections of the faces of older Bulletins allowing rotation of the painted sections to another location. Can also refer to Poster sheets.
secured unbuilt. Leased location where an advertising structure is not yet built.
setback. Distance measured from the line of travel to the center of the advertising panel.
short approach. Advertising panel fully visible from 40 feet to 75 feet to pedestrian traffic, 100 feet to 200 feet to vehicular traffic moving faster than 35 mph, and 75 feet to 150 feet to traffic moving slower than 35 mph. Also refers generically to an unusually brief period of time to read a billboard.
shot. Potential location that would be appropriate for outdoor advertising.
showing. Number of panels used by an advertiser to reach a certain percentage of the market population. Common showings are #100 (meaning 100% of the market), #75, #50 and #25. For instance, a #50 showing is estimated to be seen by 50% of the population, and might be achieved with 15 faces in one particular market but may require 100 faces in another.
show-through. Copy from a previous advertisement that is visible after new copy has been posted.
sidewalk displays. Backlit displays with copy area normally 46" wide by 67" high
silk screen. Another term for screen printing, a method for producing small quantities of Posters.
single facing. A panel at least 25 feet from a Poster, or 50 feet from a Bulletin, along the line of travel.
SMSA. (See MSA)
snipe. Small added strip of paper pasted over a section of a billboard advertisement, showing a price, a date, or other time-sensitive information; synonymous with overlay.
solar-powered panels. Billboard lights powered by batteries storing solar-generated electricity.
space position value (SPV). An obsolete rating system of a billboard's visibility. Replaced by the OVRS (Outdoor Visibility Rating System) in 1989.
special showing. Premium rates for a small number of particular panels.
special surface effects. Small reflective disks or other material attached to sign faces to make copy sparkle or shimmer and create the illusion of motion and texture.
spectacular. Unusually large or irregular-shaped Bulletins that may be embellished with electrical or 3-dimensional effects to attract special notice. Often built to specifications of one advertiser for use over a long term.
speculation lease. Obtaining a leasehold interest in anticipation of erecting a billboard.
spotted map (or location map). Map provided by a plant operator to an advertiser, with dots identifying the locations of the billboard faces in a showing.
stacked panels. Panels with the facings built one above the other. Also called decked panels.
stand. Advertising structure on which posters are displayed. Synonymous with poster panel. Also used to describe all of the sheets of paper necessary to make a complete poster display - one complete poster. A 30-sheet poster may consist of 10 to 15 sheets of paper while an 8-sheet generally consists of one to three sheets.
standardized industry. That part of the outdoor advertising industry that includes signs of standard sizes and shapes established by the Outdoor Advertising Association of America
standard showing. Synonymous with representative showing, one of the recognized intensities of a billboard ad campaign: minimum, representative, or intensive.
station posters. Poster of various sizes located on train, subway or commuter rail platforms.
stock poster. Standard Poster copy design for a specific category of business, which may be purchased and used by advertisers in that category merely by adding their trade name to the design.
streamliner. Bulletin design developed to give a modern appearance.
substitution principle. An appraisal principle stating that a typical buyer will pay no more for a property than the cost of an equally desirable substitute.
substrate. In the billboard industry, the fabric or material on which an advertisement is printed. Common substrates are flexible vinyl, canvas, mesh, paper, and translucent materials.
sun shelters. Advertising panels built as integral part of shelters from the sun, often near a beach.
super city panels. Backlit Posters affixed to the street side of phone booth kiosks, illuminated at night with visibility to vehicles and pedestrians.
super-king bus poster. Posters affixed to the sides of public buses with largest Transit format: 30" high by 240" wide.
surface arterial. Major street of a city or town, easily accessible, usually with heavy traffic and restricted parking.
target audience. Profile of the most desired prospects for a product or service, listed by characteristics such as demography, lifestyle, brand or media consumption, purchase behavior, etc.
three-message sign. Billboard face composed of many thin triangular sections in a vertical position that are synchronized to rotate together, producing three separate messages when the rotation stops briefly. Also referred to as post-turn, tri-face, and by the proprietary product name "tri-vision."
traffic audit. Third party authentication of traffic circulation of billboard sites. Data are collected either by official (government) count or by hand count. All counts are verified by the Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB).
Traffic Audit Bureau for Media Measurement (TAB). An independent, nonprofit organization that is recognized as the official national authority for authenticating traffic circulation in the outdoor advertising industry.
traffic count. Recording the number of vehicles and pedestrians passing a given point. Used by TAB to authenticate the potential exposure of billboards.
traffic flow. Graphic presentation of the traffic volume along any system of streets, arteries or highways.
traffic origin studies. Research for advertisers regarding roadway travelers from outside the immediate vicinity. License plate data are correlated with residence data and demographics to determine the origins and destinations of persons having potential exposure to certain billboards.
transit advertising. Advertising media appearing on the exterior or interior of public transportation vehicles or stations (buses, trains, commuter rail, subways, platforms, terminals, etc.)
transit shelter displays. Advertising panels that are an integral part of a freestanding covered structure located at bus stops, usually with 24-hour illumination.
trestles. Displays affixed to overhead railroad bridges providing large size, head-on visibility to traffic.
trim. Molding surrounding the face of a billboard structure.
trivision. A brand name often used generically for a special billboard face made with triangular louver construction to display three different advertising messages in a predetermined sequence.
TRP (total rating points). (See GRP)
two-sheets, or convenience-store displays. Small framed Posters placed near entrances of convenience stores, independent grocery stores, and other retail points-of-sale.
un-zoned commercial and industrial area. An area with no comprehensive zoning, or where a local municipality cannot zone. Billboards are generally allowed in un-zoned commercial and industrial areas where other legitimate business activity takes place.
urban panel. Displays in subways and at station entrances. Copy area measures 28" high by 58" wide.
vehicle load. (See load factor).
video billboards. Large video screens that display full color ads to motorists, usually after sundown.
video drive-by. Technology enabling buyers to view plant operator's inventory of locations via video recording.
wall bulletin. Large mural or display on the exterior wall of a building. Also called
wave posting. Concentration of Poster showings in a succession of areas within a market. Usually coincides with special promotions in the designated areas.
whole property. (See larger parcel).
wind load. Specified wind velocities that a sign structure should withstand based on its design and materials.